Final Document of the Workshop of the International Luxembourg Forum
of the Workshopof the International Luxembourg Forum
on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe
“Results of the PrepCom 2009 and the Prospects for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. Development of the Situation with Nuclear and Missile Programs of Iran and North Korea”
July 2, 2009, Geneva
1. The participants in the meeting of the workshop of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe support the position of the Preparatory Committee meeting 2009 for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. That position holds that major and overdue steps towards strengthening the Treaty and the nuclear non-proliferation regime will be possible provided that real progress is made in nuclear disarmament. Such steps to strengthen the NPT must be taken at the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
2. A priority step with regard to nuclear disarmament must be the conclusion of a legally binding treaty between the United States and Russia on the reduction of strategic offensive weapons to replace START-1, which expires in December, 2009. This is extremely important for the NPT Review Conference in May 2010 to be a success.
3. In that same connection, the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty must take into account in a mutually acceptable form the interrelationship of strategic offensive and strategic defensive arms while also addressing the issue of the impact of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles in a non-nuclear configuration on strategic stability. It is also necessary in the course of reduction of strategic warheads to concurrently reduce the number of strategic delivery vehicles and their launchers so as to minimize the potentially destabilizing “return potential”.
4. No less important is the stage-by-stage engagement of other nuclear states, primarily the United Kingdom, France and China, in the nuclear disarmament process. To that end, it would be useful to conclude during the first stage an agreement between those countries or, at least, for them to take unilateral obligations on the acceptance of confidence-building and transparency measures of the kind that apply between Russia and the United States in accordance with START-1.
5. Another very important step towards nuclear disarmament must be the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which will require the ratification of that treaty by the United States, the People’s Republic of China, India, Pakistan, Israel and other countries, without whose participation that Treaty cannot enter into force. The participants of the workshop are pleased to note the importance of the new U.S. Administration’s commitment in that regard.
6. The participants in the Luxembourg Forum workshop believe that it is essential to resume without delay negotiations at the Geneva Conference on Disarmament on the conclusion of the FMCT, without linking it to other disarmament issues.
7. Within the framework of the Conference on Disarmament or at another suitable forum, substantive negotiations should begin on preventing an arms race in outer space.
8. With a view to strengthening the non-proliferation regime, the workshop calls on the countries participating in the NPT Review Conference to adopt decisions to step up the monitoring activities of the IAEA and, above all, to turn the 1997 Additional Protocol into a universally recognized norm for verifying compliance with NPT obligations and also to introduce new standards in the area of nuclear exports. The 2010 Conference must make an urgent appeal for the signing and ratification of the Additional Protocol by those countries that have not yet put it into effect. It is also necessary to develop with all available means multilateral approaches for an economically sound and practicable alternatives to the creation of the critical elements of the nuclear fuel cycle at the national level.
9. The participants unanimously expressed their demand for Iran to fully implement all five relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council on Iranian nuclear program. The prolonged crisis over this issue and the high level of readiness for weapons grade enrichment presents a great danger to the sustainability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. It was emphasized that the first priority should be the ratification and full implementation by Iran of the 1997 Additional Protocol. The development of Iran’s industrial uranium enrichment capacities should be suspended without delay and become a subject of agreed limitations and full transparency under the IAEA safeguards. Upon the removal of all outstanding questions with IAEA Iran should be the subject of equal standards and non-discriminatory treatment under the NPT norms.
Iranian declarations of peaceful character of its nuclear program can be welcomed only under the condition if they will become legal obligations, which would be rigorously fulfilled. Negotiations on the establishment of the Middle East Nuclear Free Zone in the context of overall security arrangements should be promoted at appropriate international forums. In case of a lack of cooperation by Iran the leading states must take measures to radically restrict economic cooperation with Iran and take all necessary measures in line with the article 41 of the UN Charter.
10. The nuclear tests carried out by North Korea together with its continuing efforts in developing and testing a new generation of long-range missiles call for the imposition of considerably tougher sanctions by the United Nations Security Council in full accordance with Article 41 of the Charter of the United Nations. North Korean bluff should be called off by the community of nations’ readiness to rebuff any military provocation in the region. US ballistic missile defense might be built up in the area to protect South Korea and Japan in parallel with the US assurances and agreements with China and Russia on the enhancement of strategic stability.
Members of the Supervisory and Advisory Councils of the International Luxembourg Forum
Head of the Center for International Security of the Institute for World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); Scholar-in-Residence of the Carnegie Moscow Center (former Deputy Chairman of the Defense Committee of the State Duma, Federal Assembly – Russian Parliament); Corresponding member (RAS, Russia).
Deputy Director of the IMEMO; Corresponding member (RAS, Russia).
Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Ph.D. (Switzerland).
Director of the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology; Ph.D. (Russia).
Head of the Organizing Committee, International Luxembourg Forum; Principal Researcher of the IMEMO (RAS, former Director of the 4th Major Institute of the Ministry of Defense); Professor; Major-General, ret. (Russia)
Chairman of the Governing Board, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (former High Commissioner on National Minorities at the OSCE); Ambassador (Sweden).
Director of the Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Programme, International Institute for Strategic Studies in London (USA).
Chief Researcher of the IMEMO (RAS); Ph.D. (Russia).
President of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe; President of the European Jewish Congress; Ph.D. (Russia).
Senior Fellow of the James Martin Center for Non-Proliferation Studies of the Monterey Institute of International Studies (USA).
Director of the Institute for Strategic Assessments; Professor of the Moscow State Institute for International Relations and the Higher School of Economics (former Chief of the Organizational Analytic Division, RAS); Ph.D. (Russia).
Vice President for Studies and Director of the Non-Proliferation Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Ph.D. (USA).
Senior Associate of the Department of the Middle East, Institute for Oriental Studies (RAS); Professor (Russia).
Professor of Physics of the University of Rome "Tor Vergata" (former President of the National Commission for Nuclear Physics, Italy).